Sep 9, 2011

Chicken Pox In Children














Chicken Pox (Varicella, Chickenpox) is a contagious viral infection that often arise and cause a skin rash in the form of a collection of small spots are flat or protruding, fluid-filled blisters and scabs, which cause itching.
Cause
The reason is the varicella-zoster virus.
The virus is transmitted through saliva splashes patient or via objects contaminated by fluid from the blisters of the skin.
Patients can transmit the disease from onset of symptoms until the last blister has dried. Therefore, to prevent contagion, patients should be isolated (sequestered).
If someone has had chickenpox, then he will have immunity and will not suffer from chicken pox again. But the virus can remain dormant in the human body, and sometimes becomes active again and cause shingles.

Symptoms and signs
Symptoms begin to appear (incubation period) within 10-21 days after infection. Usually the patient had been infected with the virus for more than 48 hours before symptoms appear.

In children aged over 10 years, the initial symptoms of headache, fever being and malaise, decreased appetite. The symptoms are usually not found in children younger symptoms in adults are usually more severe.
24-36 hours after onset of initial symptoms, red spots appear flat (macular). Then the prominent spots (papules), forming a fluid-filled blisters (vesicles) with itching, which eventually will dry up. This process takes time for 6-8 hours. Furthermore, we will form spots and new blisters.

On the fifth day, usually no longer form new blisters, the blisters will dry up on the sixth day and disappear in less than 20 days.

Papules on the face, arms and legs are relatively few, usually are found in the upper torso (chest, back, shoulder). The spots often found on the scalp.

Papules in the mouth quickly rupture and form open sores (ulcers), which often causes swallowing disorders. Ulcers can also be found on the eyelids, upper respiratory tract, rectum and vagina. Papules on the vocal cords and upper respiratory tract sometimes causes respiratory problems.

Can occur pembengkaan lymph nodes in the neck side.

Chicken pox rarely causes the formation of scar tissue, if any, only a small indentation around the eyes. Chickenpox sores can become infected due to scratching and is usually caused by staphylococci.

Treatment
Treatment is usually given in the form of supportive treatment / symptomatic and maintain good hygiene to avoid secondary infections.
At school age children should be rested at home first, in order to prevent the transmission of my friends at school. And may go back if keropengnya already dried up and his fever has gone down.
Can be used antipyretic drugs to reduce fever, but you should avoid using aspirin, because it can cause Reye's syndrome.
To relieve itching and prevent scratching, the skin should be cold compressed. Can also be applied calamine lotions, antihistamines or other lotions containing menthol or phenol

To reduce the risk of bacterial infection, you should:

1. The skin is washed frequently with soap and water
2. Maintain hand hygiene
3. Puku cut short
4. Clothes stay dry and clean.
5. Sometimes given drugs to reduce itching (antihistamines).
6. If there is a bacterial infection, given antibiotics.
7. If the case is severe, can be given anti-viral drug acyclovir.

Anti-viral drugs may be given to children older than 2 years. Acyclovir is usually given to teenagers, because teenagers are more severe disease. Asikloir can reduce the severity of the disease if given within wakatu 24 hours after the first appearance of the rash.
Alernatif other drugs, namely: Famciclovir, valacyclovir, and interferon vidarabin

Complication
Children usually recover from chickenpox without any problems. But in adults and people with immune system disorders, infections can be severe or even fatal.
The complications that can be found on chicken pox are:
    * Pneumoniakarena virus
    * Inflammation of heart
    * Inflammation of joints
    * Inflammation of the liver
    * Encephalitis (brain infection)
    * Reye's Syndrome
    * Purpura
    * Bacterial infections (erysipelas, pyoderma, impetigo bullosa).
Diagnosis
Diagnosis based on typical skin rash (macules, papules, vesicles and scab).
Investigations
Examination of leukocyte mennjukkan usually normal results, low, or increased slightly. Multinucleated giant cells on Tzanck smear examination of skin blisters. Positive results on the examination of tissue culture.
Prevention
To prevent chicken pox are given a vaccine. To the people who have never had chicken pox vaccination and are at higher risks of complications (eg people with immune system disorders), can be given immunoglobulin zoster or varicella-zoster immunoglobulin.
Varicella vaccine is usually given to children aged 12-18 months.

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1 comments:

DeeJayHan-Blog said...

kunjungan sobat :) visit me back n comment back thanks .

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